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Monday, February 15, 2016

the table of elements

  
H
1
He
2
Li
3
Be
4
B
5
C
6
N
7
O
8
F
9
Ne
10
Na
11
Mg
12
Al
13
Si
14
P1
5
S
16
Cl
17
A
1
K
19
Ca
20
Sc
21
Ti
22
V
23
Cr
24
Mn
25
Fe
26
Co
27
Ni 28 Cu
29
Zn
30
Ga
31
Ge
32
As
33
Se
34
Br
35
Kr
36
Rb
37
Sr
38
Y
39
Zr
40
Nb
41
Mo
42
Tc
43
Ru
44
Rh
45
Pd
46
Ag
47
Cd
48
In
49
Sn
50
Sb
51
Te
52
I
53
Xe
54
Cs
55
Ba
56
La
57
Ce
58
Pr
59
Nd
60
Pm
61
Sm
62
Eu
63
Gd
64
Tb
65
Dy
66
Ho
67
Er
68
Tu
69
Yb
70
Lu
71
?
72
?
73
?
74
?
75
Hf
76
Ta
77
W
78
Re
79
Os
80
Ir
81
Pt
82
Au
83
Hg
84
Tl
85
Pb
86
Bi
87
Po
88
At
89
Rn
90
Fr
91
Ra
92
Ac
93
Th
94
Pa
95
U
96
Np
97
Pu
98
Am
99
Cm
100
Bk
101
Cf
102
Es
103
Fm
104
Md
105
No
106
Lr
107

Tuesday, July 8, 2014

Michelson-Morley ether is exposed to the de Broglie.
  To the origins of quantum mechanics.
French scientist de Broglie suggested that the electron is transferred wave matter, since electrons diffract when passing hole. They attributed the properties of the particles and the properties of the waves. Later this wave called the hit probability density of electrons in certain areas.
    But back to ether and let it consists of neutral particles obtained from compounds of the electrons and positrons. Electron moving in the air will create a wave of ether particles, which in the diffraction through the hole he go away from the straight direction.
   Tunneling through the barrier can be explained by the fact that some of the electrons falling on the crystal lattice of the barrier knock electrons from the back side of the barrier, and do not pass through it. After electrons while nobody tagged.

Monday, October 1, 2012

 
Abstract

The literature generally describes a metallic bond as the one formed by means of mutual bonds between atoms' exterior electrons and not possessing the directional properties. However, attempts have been made to explain directional metallic bonds, as a specific crystal metallic lattice.

This paper demonstrates that the metallic bond in the densest packings (volume-centered and face-centered) between the centrally elected atom and its neighbours in general is, probably, effected by 9 (nine) directional bonds, as opposed to the number of neighbours which equals 12 (twelve) (coordination number).

Probably, 3 (three) "foreign" atoms are present in the coordination number 12 stereometrically, and not for the reason of bond. This problem is to be solved experimentally.

Introduction

At present, it is impossible, as a general case, to derive by means of quantum-mechanical calculations the crystalline structure of metal in relation to electronic structure of the atom. However, Hanzhorn and Dellinger indicated a possible relation between the presence of a cubical volume-centered lattice in subgroups of titanium, vanadium, chrome and availability in these metals of valent d-orbitals. It is easy to notice that the four hybrid orbitals are directed along the four physical diagonals of the cube and are well adjusted to binding each atom to its eight neighbours in the cubical volume-centered lattice, the remaining orbitals being directed towards the edge centers of the element cell and, possibly, participating in binding the atom to its six second neighbours /3/p. 99.

Let us try to consider relations between exterior electrons of the atom of a given element and structure of its crystal lattice, accounting for the necessity of directional bonds (chemistry) and availability of combined electrons (physics) responsible for galvanic and magnetic properties.

According to /1/p. 20, the number of Z-electrons in the conductivitiy zone has been obtained by the authors, allegedly, on the basis of metal's valency towards oxygen, hydrogen and is to be subject to doubt, as the experimental data of Hall and the uniform compression modulus are close to the theoretical values only for alkaline metals. The volume-centered lattice, Z=1 casts no doubt. The coordination number equals 8.

The exterior electrons of the final shell or subcoats in metal atoms form conductivity zone. The number of electrons in the conductivity zone effects Hall's constant, uniform compression ratio, etc.

Let us construct the model of metal - element so that external electrons of last layer or sublayers of atomic kernel, left after filling the conduction band, influenced somehow pattern of crystalline structure (for example: for the body-centred lattice - 8 'valency' electrons, and for volume-centered and face-centred lattices - 12 or 9).

ROUGH, QUALITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF NUMBER OF ELECTRONS IN CONDUCTION BAND OF METAL - ELEMENT. EXPLANATION OF FACTORS, INFLUENCING FORMATION OF TYPE OF MONOCRYSTAL MATRIX AND SIGN OF HALL CONSTANT.

(Algorithm of construction of model)

The measurements of the Hall field allow us to determine the sign of charge carriers in the conduction band. One of the remarkable features of the Hall effect is, however, that in some metals the Hall coefficient is positive, and thus carriers in them should, probably, have the charge, opposite to the electron charge /1/. At room temperature this holds true for the following: vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, zinc, circonium, niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, rhodium, cadmium, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, ytterbium, hafnium, tantalum, wolfram, rhenium, iridium, thallium, plumbum /2/. Solution to this  enigma must be given by complete quantum - mechanical theory of solid body. 

Roughly speaking, using the base cases of Born-Karman, let us consider a highly simplified case of one-dimensional conduction band. The first variant: a thin closed tube is completely filled with electrons but one. The diameter of the electron roughly equals the diameter of the tube.
With such filling of the area at local movement of the electron an opposite movement of the 'site' of the electron, absent in the tube, is observed, i.e. movement of non-negative sighting. The second variant: there is one electron in the
tube - movement of only one charge is possible - that of the electron with a negative charge. These two opposite variants
show, that the sighting of carriers, determined according to the Hall coefficient, to some extent, must depend on the
filling of the conduction band with electrons. Figure 1.



Figure 1. Schematic representation of the conduction band of two different metals. (scale is not observed).

a) - the first variant;
b) - the second variant.

The order of electron movement will also be affected by the structure of the conductivity zone, as well as by the temperature, admixtures and defects. Magnetic quasi-particles, magnons, will have an impact on magnetic materials.
Since our reasoning is rough, we will further take into account only filling with electrons of the conductivity zone. Let us fill the conductivity zone with electrons in such a way that the external electrons of the atomic kernel affect the formation of a crystal lattice. Let us assume that after filling the conductivity zone, the number of the external electrons on the last shell of the atomic
kernel is equal to the number of the neighbouring atoms (the coordination number) (5).

The coordination number for the volume-centered and face-centered densest packings are 12 and 18, whereas those
for the body-centered lattice are 8 and 14 (3).

The below table is filled in compliance with the above judgements.


 Element RH . 1010
3/K)
Z.
(number)
Z kernel
(number)
Lattice type
Na -2,30 1 8 body-centered
Mg -0,90 1 9 volume-centered
Al -0,38 2 9 face-centered
Al -0,38 1 12 face-centered
K -4,20 1 8 body-centered
Ca -1,78 1 9 face-centered
Ca T=737K 2 8 body-centered
Sc -0,67 2 9 volume-centered
Sc -0,67 1 18 volume-centered
Ti -2,40 1 9 volume-centered
Ti -2,40 3 9 volume-centered
Ti T=1158K 4 8 body-centered
V +0,76 5 8 body-centered
Cr +3,63 6 8 body-centered
Fe +8,00 8 8 body-centered
Fe +8,00 2 14 body-centered
Fe Т=1189K 7 9 face-centered
Fe Т=1189K 4 12 face-centered
Co +3,60 8 9 volume-centered
Co +3,60 5 12 volume-centered
Ni -0,60 1 9 face-centered
Cu -0,52 1 18 face-centered
Cu -0,52 2 9 face-centered
Zn +0,90 2 18 volume-centered
Zn +0,90 3 9 volume-centered
Rb -5,90 1 8 body-centered
Y -1,25 2 9 volume-centered
Zr +0,21 3 9 volume-centered
Zr Т=1135К 4 8 body-centered
Nb +0,72 5 8 body-centered
Mo +1,91 6 8 body-centered
Ru +22 7 9 volume-centered
Rh +0,48 5 12 face-centered
Rh +0,48 8 9 face-centered
Pd -6,80 1 9 face-centered
Ag -0,90 1 18 face-centered
Ag -0,90 2 9 face-centered
Cd +0,67 2 18 volume-centered
Cd +0,67 3 9 volume-centered
Cs -7,80 1 8 body-centered
La -0,80 2 9 volume-centered
Ce +1,92 3 9 face-centered
Ce +1,92 1 9 face-centered
Pr +0,71 4 9 volume-centered
Pr +0,71 1 9 volume-centered
Nd +0,97 5 9 volume-centered
Nd +0,97 1 9 volume-centered
Gd -0,95 2 9 volume-centered
Gd T=1533K 3 8 body-centered
Tb -4,30 1 9 volume-centered
Tb Т=1560К 2 8 body-centered
Dy -2,70 1 9 volume-centered
Dy Т=1657К 2 8 body-centered
Er -0,341 1 9 volume-centered
Tu -1,80 1 9 volume-centered
Yb +3,77 3 9 face-centered
Yb +3,77 1 9 face-centered
Lu -0,535 2 9 volume-centered
Hf +0,43 3 9 volume-centered
Hf Т=2050К 4 8 body-centered
Ta +0,98 5 8 body-centered
W +0,856 6 8 body-centered
Re +3,15 6 9 volume-centered
Os <0 4 12 volume-centered
Ir +3,18 5 12 face-centered
Pt -0,194 1 9 face-centered
Au -0,69 1 18 face-centered
Au -0,69 2 9 face-centered
Tl +0,24 3 18 volume-centered
Tl +0,24 4 9 volume-centered
Pb +0,09 4 18 face-centered
Pb +0,09 5 9 face-centered
Where Rh is the Hall's constant (Hall's coefficient) Z is an assumed number of electrons released by one atom to the conductivity zone. Z kernel is the number of external electrons of the atomic kernel on the last shell. The lattice type is the type of the metal crystal structure at room temperature and, in some cases, at phase transition temperatures (1).

Conclusions


In spite of the rough reasoning the table shows that the greater number of electrons gives the atom of the element to the conductivity zone, the more positive is the Hall's constant. On the contrary the Hall's constant is negative for the elements which have released one or two electrons to the conductivity zone, which doesn't contradict to the conclusions of Payerls. A relationship is also seen between the conductivity electrons (Z) and valency electrons (Z kernel) stipulating the crystal structure. 

The phase transition of the element from one lattice to another can be explained by the transfer of one of the external electrons of the atomic kernel to the metal conductivity zone or its return from the conductivity zone to the external shell of the kernel under the
influence of external factors (pressure, temperature).

We tried to unravel the puzzle, but instead we received a new puzzle which provides a good explanation for the physico-chemical properties of the elements. This is the "coordination number" 9 (nine) for the face-centered and volume-centered lattices.
This frequent occurrence of the number 9 in the table suggests that the densest packings have been studied insufficiently.
Using the method of inverse reading from experimental values for the uniform compression towards the theoretical calculations and the formulae of Arkshoft and Mermin (1) to determine the Z value, we can verify its good agreement with the data listed in Table 1.
The metallic bond seems to be due to both socialized electrons and "valency" ones - the electrons of the atomic kernel.

Literature:

1) Solid state physics. N.W. Ashcroft, N.D. Mermin. Cornell University, 1975
2) Characteristics of elements. G.V. Samsonov. Moscow, 1976
3) Grundzuge der Anorganischen Kristallchemie. Von. Dr. Heinz Krebs. Universitat Stuttgart, 1968
4) Physics of metals. Y.G. Dorfman, I.K. Kikoin. Leningrad, 1933
5) What affects crystals characteristics. G.G.Skidelsky. Engineer N 8, 1989

Appendix 1

Metallic Bond in Densest Packing (Volume-centered and face-centered)

It follows from the speculations on the number of direct bonds ( or pseudobonds, since there is a conductivity zone between the neighbouring metal atoms) being equal to nine according to the number of external electrons of the atomic kernel for densest packings that similar to body-centered lattice (eight neighbouring atoms in the first coordination sphere). Volume-centered and face-centered lattices in the first coordination sphere should have nine atoms whereas we actually have 12 ones. But the presence of nine neighbouring atoms, bound to any central atom has indirectly been confirmed by the experimental data of Hall and the uniform compression modulus (and from the experiments on the Gaase van Alfen effect the oscillation number is a multiple of
nine.

In Fig.1,1. d, e - shows coordination spheres in the densest hexagonal and cubic packings.


Fig.1.1. Dense Packing.

It should be noted that in the hexagonal packing, the triangles of upper and lower bases are unindirectional, whereas in the hexagonal packing they are not unindirectional.

Literature:

  1. Introduction into physical chemistry and chrystal chemistry of semi-conductors. B.F. Ormont. Moscow, 1968.
Appendix 2

Theoretical calculation of the uniform compression modulus (B).

B = (6,13/(rs/ao))5* 1010 dyne/cm2

Where B is the uniform compression modulus ao is the Bohr radius rs - the radius of the sphere with the volume being equal to
the volume falling at one conductivity electron. 

rs=(3/4p n)1/3,
Where n is the density of conductivity electrons.

Table 1. Calculation according to Ashcroft and Mermine Element Z rs/ao theoretical calculated

Z rs/a0 B theoretical B calculated
Cs 1 5.62 1.54 1.43
Cu 1 2.67 63.8 134.3
Ag 1 3.02 34.5 99.9
Al 3 2.07 228 76.0
Table 2. Calculation according to the models considered in this paper
Z rs/a0 B theoretical B calculated
Cs 1 5.62 1.54 1.43
Cu 2 2.12 202.3 134.3
Ag 2 2.39 111.0 99.9
Al 2 2.40 108.6 76.0
Of course, the pressure of free electrons gases alone does not fully determine the compressive strenth of the metal, nevertheless in the second calculation instance the theoretical uniform compression modulus lies closer to the experimental one (approximated the experimental one) this approach (approximation) being one-sided. The second factor the effect of "valency" or external electrons of the atomic kernel, governing the crystal lattice is evidently required to be taken into consideration.

Literature:

  1. Solid state physics. N.W. Ashcroft, N.D. Mermin. Cornell University, 1975

Monday, May 4, 2009

Introduction to Solid State Physics.

Conduction electrons contribute to the low heat of metal (the law of Dulong-Petit). Theoretical calculations on the same Drude model shows that the contribution of the electrons in the heat should be considerable. Metal atoms densely packed, but not one, but several types of packages - the crystal lattice. So apart from the dense packing in the formation of the crystal lattice of metal, also played a role and chemical properties of atoms (nuclear skeleton). Metallic bond is due to the association of several outer electrons of atoms of metal in general, these electrons, the conductivity zone. The existence of the zone shown in the well-known experience as a short-term arose during braking current previously promoted the coil, and the number of conduction electrons determined from the experiments of Hall. How to define a "chemical" properties of the atomic skeleton? To do this, define the number of hybrid orbitals atomic skeleton, surrounded by attracted to a zone of conductivity. A diamond packing density of atoms in the crystal lattice is equal to 34 percent, and the coordination number (number of nearest atoms for tsentralnoizbrannogo) equals 4. One hybrid orbital atom diamond accounted for 34 divided by 4 equals 8.5 protsentov.Po analogy to the sodium atom 68 divided by 8 equals 8.5 protsentov.Otsyuda number of hybrid orbitals for atoms thick packages will be equal to 74 divided by 8,5 ravno9 pc . (orbitals). Described in the paper "On the question of the metallic bond in dense packings of chemical elements"  http://sciteclibrary.ru/eng/catalog/pages/5216.html (inEnglish) Outer shell electrons, or fill subshell first hybrid orbitals and the remaining electrons are placed in the zone of conductivity. Presumably, in real space, a zone of conductivity should be located in the vicinity of the cell surface Wigner-Zeyttsa. Roughly, it resembles a comb. Therefore, conduction electrons contribute to the low heat of metal, as they in fact are two-dimensional space with a complex surface. A frequency for the conduction electrons in a crystal is connected not only with the lattice constant, but with solid geometry hybrid (valence) shell of atomic orbitals. More ostsilyatsii in experiments de Haas-van Alphen study of the Fermi surface. Given the above set forth, it is clear that the mechanisms of electronic filing and payment levels for the atomic shell and zone of conductivity must be different. A good article is seen that the calculation of material properties can be immediately to the chemical element, but not for empty Cuba Born-Karman. All this probably "dikovato" to quantum mechanics, so will be tolerant of dissent. superconductivity in metal monocrystals Why decided to link the emergence of superconductivity from the lattice thermal vibrations of atoms? Because materials have different isotopes of the element of transition temperature in the superconducting state. Of course, such reliance is but it is insignificant. Superconductivity not depend on the type of lattice. Around the superconductor niobium in the table of many conductors, but not beyond. A thermal vibrations of atoms of nearly the same. Why do other metals from the superconductivity is not found? Thermal fluctuations of atoms are not the main mechanism of superconductivity! Conductivity depends on temperature. But with copper, silver, for some reason at the lowest temperature superconductivity is not observed, and the conductor niobium, which was much worse than copper and silver-temperature superconductivity is. Is it more difficult and lead to the type of crystal lattice of copper. That means no thermal fluctuations in the main here, and some processes in the zone of conductivity. For consideration you need to know the number of electrons, each atom of the lattice of preference to the zone of conductivity. BCS authors argue that the superconductivity is involved in every ten electrons, and according to the theory of rigid body in a simple conduction involved from one to about three electrons from an atom or roughly every tenth or hundredth electron. Nevertheless, the currents of the superconductivity much more normal conduction currents! Something happens to the electrons in the conduction zone! The task set. The zone of conductivity seems to me to-cell surface Wigner-Zeyttsa, which is located between the atoms of the crystal lattice. A large electronic conductivity, and nowhere to stay, once on this surface. The transition to the superconducting state in the zone of the conduction electrons must form a team or become dependent on each other. So in the zone of conduction electrons give the atom should be large in comparison with copper, nickel or silver, which are not superconductors. The number of conduction electrons in metals-elements are presented in the work-http: / / kristall.lan.krasu.ru / Science / publ_grodno.html U vanadium, niobium, tantalum and 5 conduction electrons in the atom and, consequently, the temperature transitions tf = 5.30. .. 9.26 and 4.48 K. U, hafnium, titanium and zirconium to 3 electron, and TC = 0.09 ... 0.39 and 0.65 K. Let the right elements of the table, there is lead, tin, 4-5 electrons and aluminum, galy, indium, thallium have 2-3 electrons, and TC = 1196 ... 1091 ... 3.40 ... 2 39, respectively. We lead and tin tf = 7.19 and 3.72, respectively. What was required to prove. Because the conductivity of the surface area, and the electrons have spin, then in my organization of conduction electrons in the community is by working through his back. -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ I am here to say that the conduction electrons are of course as a united, but not as BCS, as they begin play at a distance of several thousands of atoms between which there are more electrons, and then "mate". It is also clear that the number of energy levels in the zone of conductivity is not equal to the number of conduction electrons (as in quantum mechanics), as is the amount equal to the number of conduction electrons from the atoms of crystal lattice, ie 1-5 or a little more. -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ conduction electrons contribute to the low heat of metal (the law of Dulong-Petit). Theoretical calculations on the same Drude model shows that the contribution of the electrons in the heat should be considerable. Presumably, in real space, a zone of conductivity should be located in the vicinity of the cell surface Wigner-Zeyttsa. Roughly, it resembles a comb. Therefore, conduction electrons contribute to the low heat of metal, as they in fact are two-dimensional space with a complex surface. This error Drude. A frequency for the conduction electrons in a crystal is connected not only with the lattice constant, but with solid geometry hybrid (valence) shell of atomic orbitals. More ostsilyatsii in experiments de Haas-van Alphen study of the Fermi surface. • Josephson Effect? There were many reports of superconductivity associated magnetic phenomena. Therefore, it seems interesting to place between the two superconductors thin layer of ferromagnetic (eg Fe) or copper-diamagnetics and analyze the results. Do not make any of these sandwiches higher TC? • Increasing the TC. Under the above set out. To improve the TC in metals can offer the following. Negatively charged metal sample and test it.